|Title||Bali Road Map|
After the 2007 United Nations Climate Change Conference on the island Bali in Indonesia in December, 2007 the participating nations adopted the Bali Road Map as a two-year process to finalizing a binding agreement in 2009 in Copenhagen.
The Bali Action Plan
The Bali Road Map includes the Bali Action Plan, which charts the course for a new negotiating process designed to tackle climate change. The Bali Action Plan is a comprehensive process to enable the full, effective and sustained implementation of the Convention through long-term cooperative action, now, up to and beyond 2012, in order to reach an agreed outcome and adopt a decision. All Parties to the Convention were involved in crafting the Bali Road Map. Parties also agreed that the negotiations on a long-term agreement should address a shared vision for long-term cooperative action, including a long-term global goal for emission reductions. Furthermore, the future discussion should address enhanced national/international action, including the consideration of:
- measurable, reportable and verifiable nationally appropriate mitigation commitments or actions by all developed countries, and;
- nationally appropriate mitigation actions by developing country Parties, supported and enabled by technology, financing and capacity-building, in a measurable, reportable and verifiable manner.
The Bali Road Map included two "tracks" of negotiations:
1. The Convention(Unfccc) track
- Focuses on four âbuilding blocksâ: adaptation, mitigation, technology transfer & deployment, financing
- Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation(REDD) also discussed
- Mitigation actions from developing countries
- Mitigation commitments from developed countries
2. The Kyoto Protocol track
This deals with the commitments for the industrialised countries(Annex I Parties) under the Kyoto Protocol for the period beyond 2012 when the first period of emission reduction commitments(2008-2012) expires. In particular, talks were focused upon emission reduction targets and means of implementation.
- Agree on developed country emission reduction targets by 2009. At their third session in 2007, Parties to the Kyoto Protocol took note of the conclusions by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) that greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction commitments between 25 and 40% below 1990 levels were needed on the part of industrialized countries for the period beyond 2012 to limit a mean global temperature increase, with GHG emissions peaking within the next 10 to 15 years before going down
- Means to achieve targets: market mechanisms, national policies, accounting issues, role of land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF), etc.