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UNFCCC (Kyoto Protocol)

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Title UNFCCC (Kyoto Protocol)

Overview of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, and Adhering Countries

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) The international community organized IPCC at WMO and UNEP in 1988 following the resolution made at the UN General Assembly to actively respond to climate changes caused by global warming. UNFCCC was adopted at UNCED in June 1992.

Implementation of UNFCCC
1972 The Club of Rome published "The Limits to Growth,"
and the UN Conference on the Human Environment was held.
1979 The 1st World Climate Conference held.
1985 International Conference on Assessment of the Role of Carbon
Dioxide and of Other Greenhouse Gases in Climate Variations
and Associated Impacts held.
1987 World Commission for Environment and Development published
"Our Common Future."
1988 The World Conference on Changing Climate held, and IPCC
was organized.
1990 INC organized.
1992 UNCED held. (Agenda 21, UNFCCC and Convention on
Biological Diversity adopted) Korea signed the Conventions.
1993 Korea participated in ratification.
1994 Took effect in March 1994.
1995 COP1 held in Berlin, Germany.
1996 COP2 held in Geneva, Switzerland.
1997 COP3 held in Kyoto, Japan. Kyoto Protocol defining targets
of greenhouse gas reduction adopted.
1998 COP4 held in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
The Buenos Aires Plan of Action aiming for the early announce
ment of the Kyoto Protocol adopted.
1999 COP5 held in Bonn, Germany.
2000 COP6 held in Italy.
2001 COP6 reassociated.
2001 COP7 held in Marrakech, Morocco.
2002 COP8 held in New Delhi, India. The Delhi Declaration adopted to
urge the compliance of countries not adhering to Kyoto Protocol.
2003 COP9 held in Milan, Italy.
2004 COP10 held in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
2005 COP11 held in Montreal, Canada. Kyoto Protocol announced.
The US and Australia did not ratify.
2006 COP12 held in Nairobi, Kenya. Asia-Pacific Partnership for
Climate Change of Six Countries launched, and detailed action
plans made. Eight T/F meetings and policy implementation
committee meetings held.
2007 COP13 held in Bali, Indonesia.
2008 COP14 held in Posen, Poland.
2009 COP15 held in Copenhagen, Denmark.
2010 COP16 held in Cancun, Mexico.

Description of UNFCCC

Basic Principles: All adhering countries participate in the prevention of global
warming, and the advanced countries that have historically been responsible for a
larger share of greenhouse gas emissions take greater responsibility.
Obligations: All adhering countries pursue policies and measures for the prevention
of global warming, and submit national reports with national greenhouse gas
emission data to the UN.

Description of UNFCCC
(Article 2)
Stabilize the density of greenhouse gases in the air.
(Article 3)
  • - Common but differentiated responsibilities
  • - Respect for special conditions of developing countries
  • - Preventive measures
  • - and obligations for sustainable development
  • - Expansion of the open national economic system
(Article 4)
  • - Introduction and implementation of policies to reduce climate change
  • - Adoption of policies and measures to recover greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2000
  • - Financial and tech support for developing countries
  • - Preparation of index on the emission and absorption of green house gases (all adhering countries)
  • - Preparation and submission of national reports, including lists of greenhouse gas emission and absorption sources
  • - Adoption of programs to reduce climate change
  • - Tech development in the energy sector
  • - Preservation and reinforcement of greenhouse gas absorption sources, including forests
  • - International cooperation in terms of science, research and observations
(Article 7)
As the highest implementation organization, COP regularly
reviews the obligations and institutional measures of adhering
(Article 9)
SBSTA (The Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological
Advice) established.
(Article 10)
SBI (The Subsidiary body for Implementation) established.

Kyoto Protocol

As the greenhouse gas reduction obligation of UNFCCC has no binding power, the Kyoto Protocol was adopted for effective greenhouse gas reduction. For the first phase (from 2008 to 2012), 38 countries that were historically responsible for green house gas emissions during the course of their industrial revolutions were mandated to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to a level 5.2% below their average for 1990. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted at COP3 held in Kyoto, Japan, in 1997, and took effect on February 16, 2005.

Year of Targets
(Article 3)
From 2008 to 2012
Gases with Reduction
Targets and Base Years
(Article 3)
CO2, CH4, N2) : 1990 HFCs, PRFCs, SF6 : 1990 or 1995
Target Rate of Greenhouse
Gas Reduction
-8% EU, Eastern Europe and
-7% US
-6% Japan, Canada,
Hungary and Poland
-5% Croatia
0% Russia, New Zealand
and Ukraine
+1% Norway
+8% Australia
+10% Iceland
Absorption Sources
(Article 3)
Recognize changes of absorption sources since 1990, including plantation, replantation and deforestation
Joint Implementation
(Article 4)
Allow multiple countries to jointly achieve reduction targets (EU adopted this scheme = EU Bubble)
Joint Operation
(Article 6)
Allow advanced countries to operate joint projects and acquire or transfer reduced emissions
Clean Development
(Article 12)
Allow advanced countries and developing countries to operate joint projects and acquire or transfer reduced emissions
Emission Trading (Article 17) Allow trading of emission quota among advanced countries
Enforcement Terms
(Article 25)
  • - Ratified by 55 or more countries
  • - Ratifying countries account for more than 55% of the total carbon emission volume of countries in Attachment 1 in 1990
  • - Takes effect 90 days after the date of ratification

Flexible Kyoto Mechanism

  • - Joint Implementation Program : Greenhouse gases reduced by an advanced country through investments into other advanced countries are reflected in the greenhouse gas reduction achievements of the country.
  • - Clean Development Mechanism : The greenhouse gases reduced by an advanced country through investments into developing countries are reflected in the greenhouse gas reduction achievements of the country.
  • - Emission Trading System : The system allocates greenhouse emission quotas to countries having an obligation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and allows the trading of quotas between countries.

Adhering Countries

UN member countries, including all ASEM countries.


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